"Integration of private electric vehicles into the balancing power market in the case of Germany",
Masterthesis TH-Köln, supervised by Itxaso Aranzabal and Iraide Lopez at Universidad del Pais Vasco, Bilbao, Spain, 27.2.2023
The increasing share of electric vehicles and the decrease of
fossil power plants in Germany offer potentials for the use of electric
vehicles for the provision of balancing power. This paper investigates
the potential of private electric vehicles for providing balancing
power, in particular frequency containment reserve, in Germany.
The thesis uses 100 representative charging profiles based on two
household profile and charging profile generators to simulate the
availability of electric vehicles at 15-minute intervals throughout the
year 2022. Market conditions, including technical, economic, and
regulatory factors, are also considered.
The work concludes that the availability of the electric vehicles in
the simulated pool varies widely on a daily and weekly basis
(simultaneity factor fluctuates between 24% and 100%), but can be
increased by target-ing specific time periods, such as nighttime hours.
However, targeted supply windows and widespread availability of
vehicle-to-grid are necessary for optimal use. The willingness of
electric vehicles owners to offer their vehicles was also identified as
a success factor. A minimum number of 521 electric vehicles was
identified, for offering the minimum offer of 1.25 MW for the whole
year of 2022. Based on a simulated pool of 500 electric vehicles, a
revenue potential of up to 900 € per vehicle per year was identified,
with optimization potential in smaller supply windows and improved
> Written thesis: PDF-Dokument
> Presentation: PDF-Dokument (1.8 MB)
Simulated availability of elctric vehicles during one week.